Tournament Committee and Debate Rules of WSDC Ltd

The Tournament Committee & Debate Rules of the World Schools Debating Championships Ltd.

  1. The status of these Rules

    1. These rules govern -
      1. any debating tournament organised by the World Schools Debating Championships Limited ("WSDC Ltd"),
      2. the procedures of the Tournament Committee of the World Schools Debating Championships Limited.

    2. Conflict
      In the event of any conflict with the Byelaws of the World Schools Debating Championships Limited, the Byelaws prevail.

    3. Amendments to the Rules
      1. Motions to amend the Tournament Committee and Debate Rules must either be proposed by the Tournament Committee Executive, or proposed and seconded by two member nations.
      2. If the amendment is proposed and seconded by two member nations, the proposing nation must inform the Tournament Committee Executive at least 14 days before the first day of debates at the Championship.
      3. The Tournament Committee Executive must inform the members of the Tournament Committee of a motion to amend the rules at least 10 days prior to the first day of debates at the Championship.
      4. A proposal to amend the rules that does not comply with 2.1 (a), (b) or (c) cannot be considered at a the Tournament Committee meeting unless a two-thirds majority of those present vote in favour of then proposal being discussed and considered.
  2. The World Schools Debating Championships

    1. The World Schools Debating Championships
      1. Every year, there shall be a debating tournament called the World Schools Debating Championships (“the Championships”).
      2. The Championships shall be held wholly within the period 1 January to 29 February, or 1 July to 31 August.

        Note: The Tournament Committee may vary the dates for a particular championship under Rule 2.
    2. The Host
      The organisation that will host the Championships in a year (“the Host”) is chosen by the Tournament Committee up to three years in advance of the Championships, in accordance with the Byelaws and these Rules.

    3. Applications to Host
      1. An organisation applying to host the Championships must lodge its application with the Tournament Committee Executive at least 35 days in advance of the meeting of the Tournament Committee at which the host for the Championships is to be decided.
      2. An application to host the Championships must include the information set out in Schedule 1 (Hosting Criteria).
      3. The Tournament Committee Executive shall send a copy of all applications to host a Championships at least 28 days in advance of the meeting of the Tournament Committee at which the host for the Championships is to be decided.
    4. Choosing the Host
      1. The Tournament Committee shall choose the Host for a Championship in accordance with this rule.
      2. The Tournament Committee must first select the Final Applicant in the following way:
        1. where there is only one application to host a Championship, that applicant is the Final Applicant,
        2. where there are two or more applications, the applicant with the highest number of votes of the Committee is the Final Applicant.
      3. The Tournament Committee must then approve a resolution that the Final Applicant be the Host for a Championship by a majority of members voting on that resolution.

    5. Conducting the Championships
      The Championships must be conducted in accordance with these Rules.

    6. The Dates of a Championship
      1. At the time the Tournament Committee chooses the Host for a Championship, the Committee must determine the dates for the Championship.
      2. The Tournament Committee must determine the venue and dates for a Championship at least 12 months before the Championship is to take place.
      3. The Tournament Committee may by resolution vary the dates or venue already determined for a Championship, provided that
        1. the resolution is passed by a two thirds majority of members voting on the resolution, and
        2. if the resolution is proposed less than 12 months before the Championship is due to begin, the reason for the variation is one or more of the following:
          1. a genuine emergency or disaster,
          2. a failure by the Host to abide by the Charter,
          3. a lack of preparedness of the Host.
  3. National Representation

    1. Meaning of “Nation”
      1. For the purposes of these Rules, every Participant represents or is attached to a Nation.
      2. In these Rules, “Nation” means either -
        1. a member state of the United Nations, or
        2. a territory recognised as a Nation under this Rule.
      3. A territory may be recognised as a Nation under these Rules if it is eligible to enter competitions organised by at least two major international bodies that oversee competitions between national teams, e.g. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (and its subsidiaries), International Olympic Committee (and its subsidiaries), Commonwealth Games Federation, International Rugby Board.
      4. If a territory applies for recognition as a Nation based on eligibility within a body or bodies not listed above, the Tournament Committee Executive shall determine the applicability of said international bodies for this purpose.
      5. A territory may be recognised as a Nation under these Rules if the Tournament Committee, by resolution passed by a two-thirds majority of members voting on the resolution, agrees to recognise the territory as a Nation.
      6. Two or more territories may be recognised as a single Nation under these rules if the Tournament Committee, by resolution passed by a two-thirds majority of members voting on the resolution, agrees to recognise the territories as a single Nation.
    2. Change of National Status
      1. If, immediately before a Championship begins, the national status of a territory changes, a debating organisation representing that territory may apply to be recognised as a Nation.
      2. If that territory’s status is not recognised by Rule 3.1(b) or (c), the Tournament Committee Executive may recognise the territory as a Nation for the purposes of that one Championship only.
      3. In deciding whether to recognise the territory as a Nation under sub-rule (b), the Executive must consider the organisational needs of the territory and the Host.
      4. Notwithstanding sub-rule (b), the Tournament Committee may decide that the territory is not a Nation for future Championships, but may not disqualify the territory from participating in the Championship approved by the Executive.
    3. National Representation
      1. A Nation may be represented by only one team at a Championships.
      2. In the event of more than one application from one Nation being submitted, the Tournament Committee Executive shall use the following procedures to determine which team may represent the Nation:
        1. The Tournament Committee Executive shall contact the applicants and inform them of the situation and encourage them to reach a conclusion internally.
        2. In case the applicants have not reached an agreement, the Tournament Committee Executive shall provide each competing organisation with a period of at least 10 days to present a formal letter outlining their right to represent the Nation.
        3. Following this period, the Tournament Committee Executive shall decide which team represents the nation using the following criteria:
          1. the nature of the organisations’ relationship to WSDC,
          2. the organisations’ reach and inclusiveness of participation in debate-related activities,
          3. the organisations’ ability to provide training and financial support for participating at WSDC.
      3. The Host must ensure that every team represents a Nation in accordance with these Rules.
      4. National Identification
        1. A team representing a Nation is entitled to use the name, flag and symbols of the Nation that are recognised by all four organisations in sub-rule 3.1(c).
        2. If -
          1. the four organisations do not agree on the name, flag and symbols of a Nation, or
          2. a team represents a Nation recognised by the Tournament Committee under sub- rule 3.1(d) or the Tournament Executive Committee under sub-rule 3.2(b),

            the Tournament Executive Committee must determine under what name the team may participate and the flag and symbols it may use.
        3. For the purposes of the Charter, neither a Host nor any other Participant may prevent a team from using a name, flag or symbol permitted by this Rule.
    4. Eligibility of Participant

      1. Teams
        A team shall have at least 3 and no more than 5 members.
      2. Age
        A member of a nation’s team must:
        1. have reached their 14th birthday by the first day of debates at the Championships, and
        2. not have reached their 20th birthday by the day of the grand final at the Championships.
      3. Education Status
        1. A member of a nation’s team must have been attending classes as a full-time student at a secondary school in the nation within six months of the first day of debates at the Championship.
        2. A member of a nation’s team must not be enrolled at a tertiary or post-secondary- school institution where their first term of study begins on or before the first day of debates at the Championship.
        3. For the purposes of this rule,
          1. Students completing an extra year of schooling beyond normal requirements at an institution that is plainly a secondary school only, but which gives no tertiary credits, are eligible providing they meet the age criteria,
          2. Students completing an extra year of schooling beyond normal requirements at an institution that is plainly a secondary school only, but who may be given credits at some subsequent tertiary institution, are eligible providing they meet the age criteria,
          3. Students completing at least one year or more, at an institution that spans both secondary and tertiary levels, but who may be given credits at the tertiary level, are eligible providing they meet the age criteria and are not clearly completing the first year at a tertiary level,
          4. Students completing at least one year or more, at an institution that gives credits at the tertiary levels for entry into another tertiary institution at the third year or above, are ineligible even if they meet the age criteria.
      4. Team Coach
        1. Every team must be accompanied by a team coach.
        2. A team coach must have reached their 19th birthday by the first day of debates at the Championship.
      5. Team Manager
        1. Every team must be accompanied by a team manager.
        2. A team manager must be a coach, adjudicator or registered observer.
        3. A team manager must -
          1. have reached their 19th birthday, and
          2. have reached the age of majority in both the host nation and the nation the team represents,

            by the first day of debates at the Championship.
        4. A team manager is responsible for taking all reasonable steps to -
          1. look after the welfare of the members of the team,
          2. ensure the members of the team comply with the Code of Conduct, and
          3. ensure all members of the team are eligible to take part in the Championship subject to the requirements in Part Four - Eligibility of Participant.
    5. Format of Debates

      1. Teams in a Debate
        1. In a debate there are two teams.
        2. One team proposes the motion for debate, the other team opposes it.
      2. Speakers in a Team
        1. In a team in a debate, there are three speakers.
        2. Before a debate begins, each team must inform the chairperson of the names of their three speakers and the order they will be speaking in.
        3. The only persons who may speak in a debate are the three speakers for each team announced by the chairperson at the start of that debate.
        4. Each speaker speaks only once.
        5. After each speaker has spoken, the first or second speaker for each team gives a reply speech, with the opposition reply going first and the proposition reply second.
      3. Substitute Speeches
        1. During a debate, if a speaker declares that they are unable to make their speech, another speaker from that team who was announced by the chairperson as speaking in that debate may give a speech in substitution.
        2. If a substitute speech is given in accordance with this rule, judges shall award that speech the lowest possible score within the Marking Standard in the Judging Schedule, regardless of the quality of the speech.
        3. The marks for a substitute speech shall not be used in the calculation for any individual speaker rankings or awards.
        4. However, paragraphs (b) and (c) do not apply if a substitute reply speech is given by the first or second speaker of the team, and judges shall award that speech the appropriate score in accordance with the Judging Schedule.

      4. Timing of Speeches
        1. The speaking time for substantive speeches is 8 minutes, and for reply speeches 4 minutes.
        2. The Host shall provide time signals for each speech.
        3. In addition to the time signals provided by the host, team members or the team coach may give time signals to a speaker provided that the signals are discreet and unobtrusive.
      5. Communication
        During a debate speakers may not communicate with their coach, other team members who are not speaking in that debate, or any person in the audience, except to receive time signals in accordance with rule 5.4
    6. The Draw
      1. Ten or Fewer Teams
        If the total number of teams at the Championships is 10 or less, every team shall debate every other team in the preliminary rounds.
      2. More than Ten Teams
        1. If the total number of teams at the Championship is more than 10, every team shall debate 8 other teams in the preliminary rounds.
        2. The draw for the preliminary debates is to be conducted by the Host using a system to achieve approximately equal and fair sets of opponents for all teams.
      3. Debates in a Day
        1. As far as possible, each team shall have the same number of debates on any day as any other team.
        2. A team may not debate more than three times in a day in the preliminary rounds unless the team agrees prior to the first day of debates at the Championships.
      4. Alterations to the Draw
        1. At least 2 weeks before the first day of debates at the Championship, the Host shall send to the teams participating in the Championship the draw for the preliminary rounds.
        2. If a team withdraws after the draw has been sent to the teams, the Host may make a new draw only if:
          1. to do so would not alter the sides nor topics of any team, and
          2. all teams affected by the new draw agree.
        3. Where a new draw has not been made, all teams who would have debated against the team that has withdrawn are taken to have won the debate by forfeit if they win at least a majority of their other debates, but are otherwise taken to have lost the debate by forfeit.
        4. Where a team has either won or lost a debate by forfeit, the team will be taken to have received the following number of judges in its favour for that debate:
          1. if the average number of judges in its favour in its other debates is higher than 2.5, it receives 3 judges for that debate;
          2. if the average number of judges in its favour in its other debates is higher than 1.5 but less than or equal to 2.5, it receives 2 judges for that debate.
          3. if the average number of judges in its favour in its other debates is higher than 0.5 but less than or equal to 1.5, it receives 1 judge for that debate;
          4. if the average number of judges in its favour in its other debates is less than or equal to 0.5, it receives no judges for that debate.
    7. The Break

      1. The Break
        1. At the end of the preliminary rounds, teams shall be ranked according to the number of wins.
        2. If teams are tied on the same number of wins, they shall be separated where practicable by elimination debates and otherwise on the following priority:
          1. number of adjudications in favour of the team, then:
          2. average judges’ scores for the team.
      2. Break Rounds - 12 Teams or Less
        If the total number of teams in the Championship is 12 or less, the top 4 teams ranked according to rule 7.1 shall debate in semifinals as follows:
        1. Semifinal A - Team 1 against Team 4
        2. Semifinal B - Team 2 against Team 3
      3. Break Rounds - 13 to 24 Teams
        1. If the total number of teams in the Championship is more than 12 but 24 or less, the top 8 teams ranked according to rule 7.1 shall debate in quarterfinals as follows:
          1. Quarterfinal A - Team 1 against Team 8
          2. Quarterfinal B - Team 2 against Team 7
          3. Quarterfinal C - Team 3 against Team 6
          4. Quarterfinal D - Team 4 against Team 5
        2. The winning teams in the quarterfinals shall debate in semifinals as follows:
          1. Semifinal A - Winner Quarterfinal A against Winner Quarterfinal D
          2. Semifinal B - Winner Quarterfinal B against Winner Quarterfinal C
      4. Break Rounds - More Than 24 Teams
        1. If the total number of teams in the Championship is more than 24, the top 16 teams ranked according to rule 7.1 shall debate in Octofinals as follows:
          1. Octofinal A - Team 1 against Team 16
          2. Octofinal B - Team 2 against Team 15
          3. Octofinal C - Team 3 against Team 14
          4. Octofinal D - Team 4 against Team 13
          5. Octofinal E - Team 5 against Team 12
          6. Octofinal F - Team 6 against Team 11
          7. Octofinal G - Team 7 against Team 10
          8. Octofinal H - Team 8 against Team 9
        2. The winning teams in the octofinals shall debate in quarterfinals as follows:
          1. Quarterfinal A - Winner Octofinal A against Winner Octofinal H
          2. Quarterfinal B - Winner Octofinal B against Winner Octofinal G
          3. Quarterfinal C - Winner Octofinal C against Winner Octofinal F
          4. Quarterfinal D - Winner Octofinal D against Winner Octofinal E
        3. The winning teams in the quarterfinals shall debate in semifinals as follows:
          1. Semifinal A - Winner Quarterfinal A against Winner Quarterfinal D
          2. Semifinal B - Winner Quarterfinal B against Winner Quarterfinal C
      5. Break Rounds - Type of Debate
        1. All Octofinal, Quarterfinal and Semifinal debates shall be Impromptu Debates.
        2. The team to propose the motion in each debate in the break rounds shall be determined by the toss of a coin between those teams at the start of the preparation period for the debate.
      6. The Grand Final
        1. The winners of the Semifinals shall debate in the Grand Final.
        2. The motion for the Grand Final shall be a motion announced at the same time as the motions for the preliminary rounds.
        3. The team to propose the motion in the Grand Final shall be determined by the toss of a coin between those teams at the end of the second Semifinal.
      7. Final Rankings
        1. At the end of the Championship, teams’ final rankings shall be determined as follows:
          1. The champions and runners-up shall be ranked 1 and 2 respectively;
          2. All other teams shall be ranked according to the round of the Championship the team reached and, where equal, their preliminary round ranking (in accordance with 7.1).
    8. Motions

      1. The Motions Sub-Committee
        There shall be a Motions Sub-Committee for a Championship.

      2. Composition of Motions Sub-Committee
        1. The Motions Sub-Committee consists of:
          1. two members nominated by the Host, and
          2. five members elected by the Tournament Committee no later than five months before the first day of debates of a Championship.
        2. The Motions Sub-Committee will also have two advisers who shall be nominated by the Tournament Committee Executive no later than three months before the first day of debates of a Championship.
        3. When electing members and selecting advisers for the Motion Sub-Committee, the Tournament Committee and Tournament Committee Executive should aim to reflect the geographic, cultural and linguistic diversity of the teams participating at the Championship.
        4. A coach of a team at the Championship is not eligible to be a member of the Motions Sub-Committee or an adviser to the Motions Sub-Committee for that Championship.

      3. Role of Motions Sub-Committee
        The Motions Sub-Committee shall select all motions for debate at a Championship.
      4. Prepared Debates
        1. At least twelve weeks prior to the first day of debates at a Championship the Motions Sub-Committee shall forward to the two advisers a list of the motions it proposes to use for the prepared debates including the Grand Final.
        2. The advisers shall either approve the list of proposed motions for the prepared debates, or suggest that the wording or topic areas for some or all of the motions on the list should be reconsidered.
        3. If the advisers suggest that any motions on the list should be reconsidered, the advisers will then participate in the Motions Sub-Committee’s remaining discussions in the capacity of non-voting members until the list of motions for the prepared debates is finalised.
        4. At least 8 weeks prior to the first day of debates at a Championship, the Motions Sub-Committee shall forward to the Host the motions it has selected for the prepared debates including the Grand Final.
        5. The Host shall assign motions to particular rounds of debates and forthwith notify all teams of prepared motions for the Championship and the debates to which those motions are assigned.
      5. Impromptu Debates
        1. At least four weeks prior to the first day of debates at a Championship the Motions Sub-Committee shall forward to the two advisers a list of the motions it proposes to use for the following purposes:
          1. motions for all the preliminary round impromptu debates,
          2. motions for the Octofinals, Quarterfinals and Semifinals, and
          3. at least one additional motion to be used if necessary as a spare.
        2. The advisers shall either approve the list of proposed motions for the impromptu debates, or suggest that the wording or topic areas for some or all of the motions on the list should be reconsidered.
        3. If the advisers suggest that any motions on the list should be reconsidered, the advisers will then participate in the Motions Sub-Committee’s remaining discussions in the capacity of non-voting members until the list of motions for the impromptu debates is finalised.
        4. At least one day before the first day of debates at a Championship, the Motions Sub- Committee shall give to the Host the list of motions it has selected for impromptu debates, plus at least one additional motion to be used as a spare.
        5. Motions selected for the impromptu preliminary rounds shall be assigned to these rounds randomly by the host.
      6. Break Round Motions
        At least one day before the first debate in the Break Rounds, the Motions Sub-Committee shall give to the Host the list of motions it has selected for the Octofinals, Quarterfinals and Semifinals, plus at least one additional motion for the Break Rounds to be used as a spare.
    9. Language

      1. Language
        All Championship debates shall be in English.
      2. EFL and ESL Awards
        1. Before the first day of debates at a Championship, the coach of a team may apply to the Chief Adjudicator(s) for -
          1. the team, or
          2. one or more members of the team,

            to be considered for English as a Foreign Language (“EFL”) and English as a Second Language (“ESL”) Awards.
        2. In the application, the coach must provide the following information in relation to each speaker:
          1. the language of the speaker’s family,
          2. the name of the school the speaker attends or most recently attended, and
          3. the language of instruction of that school.
      3. EFL Speaker
        Members of a team shall be classified as EFL if -
        1. they do not come from a first-language English-speaking family, and
        2. they attend a school where English is not used as a medium of instruction (except for classes in the teaching of English).
      4. ESL Speaker
        Members of a team shall be classified as ESL if -
        1. they do not come from a first-language English-speaking family, and
        2. they attend a school where English is used as a medium of instruction in addition to classes in the teaching of English.
      5. Native English Speakers
        1. Members of a team shall be classified as Native English speakers if they come from a first- language English-speaking family.
      6. EFL Teams
        Teams shall be classified as an EFL Team if -
        1. English is not an official language of the nation they represent, and
        2. no more than one team member does not meet the requirements of an EFL Speaker in accordance with rule 9.3.

      7. ESL Teams
        Teams shall be classified as an ESL Team if -
        1. English is not the primary language of discourse of the nation they represent,
        2. the team is not classified as an EFL team in accordance with rule 9.6, and
        3. no more than one member of the team meets the requirements of a Native English speaker in accordance with rule 9.5.
      8. Native English Teams
        Teams shall be classified as Native English teams if they are neither an EFL nor an EFL team.
      9. Determination of Speaker and Team Status
        1. Before the end of the first day of debates at a Championship, the Chief Adjudicator(s) shall determine all applications for ESL and EFL status and publish the list of teams and speakers eligible for ESL and EFL awards.
        2. In making the determination, the Chief Adjudicator(s) may consider the information in the application forms and any other available published information that the Chief Adjudicator(s) believes to be reliable.
      10. Appeals
        1. The coach of a team may appeal, on behalf of the team, against the -
          1. inclusion of, or
          2. exclusion from,

            a speaker or a team from the published list of EFL and ESL speakers and teams.
        2. An appeal shall be in writing and given to the Chairperson of the Tournament Committee no later than 48 hours after the Chief Adjudicator(s) publishes the list of EFL and ESL speakers and teams.
        3. The Tournament Committee shall determine, in accordance with these Rules, the status of each person or team the subject of an appeal.
        4. The Tournament Committee shall make its decision under paragraph (c) by simple majority prior to the announcement of the EFL and ESL Awards.
    10. Impromptu Debates

      1. Impromptu Debates
        This part of the rules applies to any impromptu debates held during the preliminary rounds, and to the impromptu debates in the break rounds.
      2. Preliminary Rounds
        1. Half of the debates for each team in the preliminary rounds may be Impromptu Debates.
        2. Notwithstanding paragraph (a), where the Draw includes a Bye Round for teams who have a bye in other rounds, teams in the Bye Round may have up to five of their preliminary rounds as Impromptu Debates
      3. Preparation Time and Procedure
        1. The preparation time for each team in an Impromptu Debate is one hour commencing immediately after the motion is read out.
        2. If there is a substantial walking distance between venues, the Chief Adjudicator(s) may use their discretion to award up to a maximum of ten additional minutes to the preparation time of the teams affected.
        3. The preparation room and conditions for each team in an Impromptu Debate shall be as similar as possible.
      4. Participation in Preparation
        Only the members of the team may take part in the preparation of an Impromptu Debate.
      5. Materials
        Teams may not bring any handwritten, printed or published materials with them into their preparation room for Impromptu Debates, with the exception of an English Language dictionary, a bilingual dictionary, and a single-volume encyclopaedia or almanac per team.
      6. Communication
        A person taking part in the preparation of an Impromptu Debate may not take into the preparation room a telephone, computer or any other device capable of communicating or accessing information outside the preparation room.
      7. Motion Clarifications
        1. If a team is uncertain about the wording of an impromptu motion, they may ask for clarification within the first 15 minutes of their preparation time only.
        2. If one team in a debate has requested clarification on a motion, their opponents must also be provided with the same clarification. There is no requirement to share this clarification with every team in the round.
    11. Judges

      1. Eligibility to Judge
        1. To be eligible to judge at a Championship, a person must be -
          1. experienced at judging the highest level of senior school or university debates in that person’s nation and have judged such debates regularly during the two years prior to the Championship, and
          2. nominated by the organisation or team representing that person’s nation on the Tournament Committee.
        2. Notwithstanding paragraph (a), the Chief Adjudicator(s) may accept a person to be a judge at a Championship who does not meet the requirements of paragraph (a) if -
          1. that person has judged at a previous championship, or
          2. in the opinion of the Chief Adjudicator(s), the person is sufficiently experienced and competent to be a judge.
      2. Number of Judges
        All championship debates shall be judged by an odd-numbered panel of at least three judges.
      3. National Association
        1. A judge shall not judge the team from their own nation.
        2. A judge shall not judge a team where to do so would lead a reasonable person to believe that the judge could not judge the team impartially.
      4. Judging and Coaching
        1. A team coach may not judge at the Championship at which they are a coach.
        2. A judge shall not assist in the coaching of a team at the Championship at which they are judging

      5. Judging the Same Team
        A judge may judge the same team more than once, provided that the judge does not judge that team a disproportionate number of times.
      6. Winning a Debate
        1. A debate is won by the team which has the majority of the votes of the judges.
        2. The cumulative judges’ scores or cumulative winning margins are not used to determine which team wins the debate, though they may be used to rank teams for the purposes of the Break Rounds and the final awards.

      7. The Judging Schedule
        1. The marking standard, rules of debate, and principles of judging, are set out in Schedule 1 (The Judging Schedule).
        2. The Tournament Committee may authorise instructional material and guidelines for judges (“Authorised Material”), consistent with the Judging Schedule and the Rules.
        3. The Chief Adjudicator(s) shall ensure that judges are familiar with the Judging Schedule and any Authorised Material.
        4. All judges shall judge in accordance with the Judging Schedule and any Authorised Material.
      8. Allocation of Judges
        1. The Chief Adjudicator(s) shall allocate judges to debates in accordance with the Rules.
        2. Judges for all Championship debates, including the Grand Final, are to be selected for their ability to judge, not because they hold any particular office or occupation.
      9. A Judge Unable to Finish Judging a Debate
        1. If, before a debate begins, one of the judges assigned to the adjudication panel for the debate is unable to judge, the Chief Adjudicator(s) may assign another judge to replace the judge.
        2. If -
          1. The Chief Adjudicator(s) is unable to assign another judge in the situation described in paragraph (a), or
          2. an assigned judges for a debate has to withdraw from judging the debate after it has begun

            the debate shall proceed with the remaining judges, and the result shall be determined in accordance with paragraph (c).
        3. In the situation described in paragraph (b),
          1. if the number of judges who should be on the panel is 3, -
            1. if the remaining judges vote for a team, that team is taken to win the debate unanimously,
            2. if the remaining judges are evenly split, the more senior of those judges (as determined by the Chief Adjudicator prior to the first of the remaining judges casting their ballot) shall have a casting vote to determine the winner, and that team is taken to win the debate by majority;
          2. if the number of judges who should be on the panel is more than 3 -
            1. if the remaining judges vote for a team, that team is taken to win the debate unanimously,
            2. if the number of remaining judges voting for a team would constitute a majority of the original panel, that team is taken to have won the debate by a majority with the dissenting judges voting for the losing team,
            3. if the remaining judges are evenly split, the most senior of those judges (as determined by the Chief Adjudicator prior to the first of the remaining judges casting their ballot) shall have a casting vote to determine the winner, and that team is taken to win the debate by the narrowest possible majority.
        4. In all the situations described in paragraph (c), if it is necessary to determine the average score for a team or a speaker, that score is the average of the judges remaining on the panel.
        5. Explanatory Examples:
          1. A judge on a panel of 3 judges is unable to finish judging the debate. The remaining judges are unanimous. The winning team wins the debate unanimously 3-0, and the average score for each team and speaker is the average of the two remaining judges.
          2. A judge on a panel of 3 judges is unable to finish judging the debate. The remaining judges split 1-1. The Chief Adjudicator determines that judge A is more senior before either of the remaining judges cast their ballot, and that judge has a casting vote in favour of the team that that judge decided had won the debate. The winning team wins the debate by majority 2-1, and the average score for each team and speaker is the average of the two remaining judges.
          3. A judge on a panel of 5 judges is unable to finish judging the debate. The remaining judges are unanimous. The winning team wins the debate unanimously, and the average score for each team and speaker is the average of the remaining 4 judges.
          4. A judge on a panel of 5 judges is unable to finish judging the debate. The remaining judges split 3-1. The winning team wins the debate 4-1, and the average score for each team and speaker is the average of the remaining 4 judges.
          5. A judge on a panel of 5 judges is unable to finish judging the debate. The remaining judges split 2-2. The Chief Adjudicator determines that judge A is the most senior before any of the remaining judges cast their vote, and that judge has a casting vote in favour of the team that that judge decided had won the debate. The winning team wins the debate 3-2, and the average score for each team and speaker is the average of the remaining 4 judges.
          6. A judge on a panel of 7 judges is unable to finish judging the debate. The remaining judges split 4-2. The winning team wins the debate 5-2, and the average score for each team and speaker is the average of the remaining 6 judges.
    12. The Chief Adjudicator(s)

      1. The Chief Adjudicator(s)
        1. There shall be at least one and no more than two Chief Adjudicators for a Championship.
        2. A Chief Adjudicator must have judged in at least one Championship prior to being eligible for the role.
        3. A Chief Adjudicator must have served on a Chief Adjudicator’s Panel (see rule 12.4) at least once in order to be eligible for the role. Where two Chief Adjudicators have been appointed, it is only necessary for one to fulfil this requirement.
        4. If an individual has been appointed to serve as a Chief Adjudicator for two consecutive tournaments, there must be a gap of at least one tournament before he/she can again be appointed to the role.

      2. Appointment
        1. The Host shall nominate the Chief Adjudicator(s).
        2. The nomination must be approved -
          1. by the Tournament Committee, or
          2. by the Tournament Executive Committee if the nomination is made after the last meeting of the Tournament Committee prior to the Championship.

      3. Functions
        In accordance with the Rules, the Chief Adjudicator(s) is responsible for -
        1. determining the eligibility of judges,
        2. training judges prior to the start of the championship,
        3. assessing whether judges are competent to judge debates,
        4. assigning judges to debates,
        5. recording results of debates,
        6. determining the team rankings at the end of the preliminary rounds,
        7. determining the draw for the Break Rounds and Grand Final, and
        8. any other matter connected with the adjudication of debates at the Championship.

      4. The Chief Adjudicator’s Panel
        1. The Chief Adjudicator(s) shall select a panel of senior and experienced judges to assist them in their responsibilities. This panel shall be known as the ‘Chief Adjudicator’s Panel’ (CAP).
        2. To be eligible to be a member of the Chief Adjudicator’s Panel, the individual must have judged in at least one Championship prior to being appointed.
        3. An eligible judge who is intending to judge at the Championship must apply to the Chief Adjudicator(s) no more than three months before the first day of debates at the Championship to be considered for appointment to the Chief Adjudicator’s Panel.
        4. The Chief Adjudicator(s) shall select the members of the Chief Adjudicator’s Panel after considering all applications as well as the list of judges expected to be attending the Championship.
        5. The membership of the Chief Adjudicator’s Panel shall reflect, as far as possible, the geographic, linguistic, gender and cultural diversity of the judges expected to be attending the Championship.
        6. At least one member of the Chief Adjudicator’s Panel must not be a native English speaker.
        7. One place on the Chief Adjudicator’s Panel must be reserved for a Chief Adjudicator of a forthcoming Championship if rule 12.1 (c) needs to be fulfilled.
        8. A member of the Chief Adjudicator’s panel may advise and assist the Chief Adjudicator(s), but may not independently carry out any of the Chief Adjudicator’s responsibilities or exercise the Chief Adjudicator’s powers.
        9. The members of the Chief Adjudicator’s Panel must be approved by the Tournament Committee Executive before their appointment takes effect.

      5. Two Chief Adjudicators
        Where there are two Chief Adjudicators for a Championship, any function given to a Chief Adjudicator by the Rules may be exercised by either of the Chief Adjudicator.
    13. Assessment of Judges

      1. Assessment of Judges
        1. At any time before or during a Championship, the Chief Adjudicator(s) may assess a judge to determine that judge’s -
          1. competence to judge, or
          2. understanding of the Rules, the Judging Schedule, or any Authorised Material.
        2. In undertaking an assessment under paragraph (a), the Chief Adjudicator(s) shall take into account -
          1. whether the judge has been able or unable to give sufficient reasons for awarding the debate to one team as against another,
          2. whether the judge has misdirected himself or herself as to some or more of the rules of debate to a significant extent.
          3. whether the judge has made remarks to a team or other participant at the championship in a way that casts significant doubt as to the judge's competence or impartiality,
          4. whether as a result of excessive consumption of alcohol or other substances or tiredness or sickness or other such factors, the ability or perceived ability of the judge to judge competently is seriously in question,
          5. whether a complaint has been upheld against the judge pursuant to the Rules, (vi) any representations made by the judge in question, and
          6. any other matter the Chief Adjudicator(s) considers relevant.
        3. In undertaking an assessment provided for in paragraph (a) the Chief Adjudicator(s) shall -
          1. inform himself or herself of evidence and facts as he or she deems fit, and
          2. consult with the Chief Adjudicator’s Panel.
        4. The Chief Adjudicator(s) may at any time, as a result of an assessment in accordance with paragraph (a) , decide that that judge should not
          1. judge any debates, or
          2. judge any further debates without a further assessment,

            if the Chief Adjudicator(s) is satisfied that there is sufficient doubt about that judge’s ability to judge competently or impartially.
        5. Before deciding whether a judge should not judge a further debate or debates, the Chief Adjudicator(s) in conjunction with the Chief Adjudicator’s panel shall determine whether the matter could be more appropriately resolved by counselling or other appropriate procedure.
        6. Notwithstanding any assessment made under this rule, no result of any debate shall be overturned.

      2. Complaints about Judges
        1. A complaint about a judge may be made to the Chief Adjudicator(s), in accordance with this rule, about the competence or impartiality of a judge to judge a debate.

          1. A judge on a panel of judges for a debate may complain about another judge on the panel.
          2. The coach or team manager of a team in a debate may complain about a judge in a debate involving that team.
          3. A complaint shall be in writing.
          4. A complaint shall be made within 24 hours of the end of the debate out of which the complaint arises.
          5. Without limiting the scope of a complaint, a complaint may allege that a judge -
            1. has misdirected himself or herself as to a matter set out in the Rules, the Judging Schedule, or any Authorised Material, or
            2. has made remarks prior to, during or after a debate in a way that raises significant doubt as to his or her impartiality for that debate.

      3. Investigation of a Complaint
        1. Upon receipt of a complaint made in accordance with the Rules, the Chief Adjudicator(s) shall determine whether -
          1. the complaint should be referred to the Complaints Officer(s), or
          2. the complaint can be resolved without further investigation.
        2. If the complaint requires further investigation, the Chief Adjudicator(s) shall undertake such further investigation.
        3. Without limiting the scope of an investigation, the Chief Adjudicator(s) may talk to -
          1. the judge the subject of the complaint,
          2. other judges on the panel for the debate out of which the complaint arose,
          3. coaches present at the debate out of which the complaint arose, and
          4. any other person.

      4. Determination of a Complaint
        1. In conjunction with the Chief Adjudicator’s Panel, the Chief Adjudicator(s) shall determine the complaint by dismissing or upholding the complaint.
        2. The Chief Adjudicator(s) shall not uphold the complaint without -
          1. conducting an investigation under rule 13.3(b), and
          2. talking with the judge the subject of the complaint.
        3. If the Chief Adjudicator(s) upholds the complaint, the Chief Adjudicator(s) may also -
          1. counsel the judge,
          2. direct that the judge act as a shadow judge for such portion of the Championship as the Chief Adjudicator(s) thinks appropriate,
          3. direct that the judge undergo further training before being assigned to any future debate at the Championship,
          4. stand the judge down for such portion of the Championship as the Chief Adjudicator(s) thinks appropriate,
          5. refer the complaint to the Complaints Officer,
          6. decide to take no further action.

      5. Notification of Outcome
        1. The Chief Adjudicator(s) shall notify in writing -
          1. the person who made the complaint, and
          2. the judge the subject of the complaint,

            of the outcome of the complaint.
        2. Where the Chief Adjudicator(s) has upheld a complaint, he or she shall also notify in writing the Chief Adjudicator(s) of the next Championship of the outcome of the complaint.

      6. Result of a Debate
        Notwithstanding the outcome of a complaint, the result of a debate shall not be overturned.
    14. The Code of Conduct

      1. The Code of Conduct
        The Code Of Conduct is set out in Schedule 3.

      2. Abiding by the Code of Conduct
        1. Each participant at a Championship shall abide by the Code of Conduct.
        2. Before attending a Championship, each participant must sign the agreement in Schedule 3 to abide by the Code of Conduct.
    15. Awards

      1. Championship Awards
        After the Grand Final, the Host shall present awards to -
        1. the team which wins the Grand Final,
        2. the team which is runner-up in the Grand Final,
        3. the other teams which reached the Semifinal.
        4. the highest ranked EFL team in accordance with Part 9 ,
        5. the highest ranked ESL team in accordance with Part 9,
        6. the highest ranked new team at the Championship,
        7. the highest ranked speaker at the Championship,
        8. the highest ranked EFL speaker at the Championship in accordance with Part 9,
        9. the highest ranked ESL speaker at the Championship in accordance with Part 9,
        10. the highest ranked speaker from a new team at the Championship.
      2. New Teams and Speakers
        For the purposes of rule 15.1 -
        1. a new team is a team from a nation competing at the Championship for the first time,
        2. a speaker from a new team is a member of a new team and who has not previously competed at a Championship.

      3. Other Awards
        This Part does not prevent the Host from making other awards at a Championship.
      4. Form of Awards
        The Host is responsible for the form of awards made under this Part.

      5. Awards for Outstanding Contributions
        1. The Tournament Committee shall make such awards according to criteria that the Tournament Committee shall determine from time to time.
        2. The Tournament Committee may make appropriate awards to individuals considered to have made an outstanding contribution to the World Schools Debating Championships.

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