This document was submitted to the SEC on behalf of STUDENT LOAN CORP. The original filing can be found at http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/00008939...
THE STUDENT LOAN CORPORATION
a Delaware corporation (hereinafter, the Corporation)
Section 1.1. Annual Meetings. An annual meeting of stockholders shall be held on such date, time and place as may be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors from time to time for the purpose of electing directors and for the transaction of such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting.
Section 1.2. Special Meetings. Special meetings of stockholders for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time only by the Chairman of the Board, if any, the President, the Board of Directors or by a committee of the Board of Directors authorized to call such meetings, and by no other person. The business transacted at a special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to the purpose or purposes for which such meeting is called, except as otherwise determined by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting.
Section 1.3. Notice of Meetings. A written notice of each annual or special meeting of stockholders shall be given stating the place, date and time of the meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Unless otherwise provided by law, the Corporations certificate of incorporation (the Certificate of Incorporation) or these Bylaws, such notice of meeting shall be given not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such meeting. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholders address as it appears on the records of the Corporation.
Section 1.4. Adjournments. Any annual or special meeting of stockholders may be adjourned from time to time to reconvene at the same or some other place, and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting if the date, time and place thereof are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting any business may be transacted that might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 30 days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting in accordance with Section 1.3 of these Bylaws.
Section 1.5. Quorum. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the presence in person or by proxy of the holders of stock having a majority of the votes which could be cast by the holders of all outstanding stock entitled to vote at the meeting shall constitute a quorum at each meeting of stockholders. In the absence of a quorum, the stockholders so present may, by the affirmative vote of the holders of stock having a majority of the votes that could be cast by all such holders, adjourn the meeting from time to time in the manner provided in Section 1.4 of these Bylaws until a quorum is present. If a quorum is present when a meeting is convened, the subsequent withdrawal of stockholders, even though less than a quorum remains, shall not affect the ability of the remaining stockholders lawfully to transact business.
Section 1.6. Organization. Meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board, if any, or if there is none or in his or her absence, by the President, or in his or her absence, by a chairman
designated by the Board of Directors, or in the absence of such designation by a chairman chosen at the meeting. The Secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in his or her absence the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.
Section 1.7. Voting. (a) Except as otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation, each stockholder entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be entitled to one vote for each share of stock held by such stockholder that has voting power on the matter in question.
(b) Voting at meetings of stockholders need not be by written ballot. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors. Each other question shall, unless otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, be decided by the vote of the holders of stock having a majority of the votes that could be cast by the holders of all stock entitled to vote on such question that are present in person or by proxy at the meeting.
(c) Stock of the Corporation standing in the name of another corporation and entitled to vote may be voted by such officer, agent or proxy as the Bylaws or other internal regulations of such other corporation may prescribe or, in the absence of such provision, as the Board of Directors or comparable body of such other corporation may determine.
(d) Stock of the Corporation standing in the name of a deceased person, a minor, an incompetent or a debtor in a case under Title 11 of the United States Code, and entitled to vote may be voted by an administrator, executor, guardian, conservator, debtor-in-possession or trustee, as the case may be, either in person or by proxy, without transfer of such shares into the name of the official or other person so voting.
(e) A stockholder whose voting stock of the Corporation is pledged shall be entitled to vote such stock unless on the transfer records of the Corporation the pledgor has expressly empowered the pledgee to vote such shares, in which case only the pledgee, or such pledgees proxy, may represent such shares and vote thereon.
(f) If voting stock is held of record in the names of two or more persons, whether fiduciaries, members of a partnership, joint tenants, tenants in common, tenants by the entirety or otherwise, or if two or more persons have the same fiduciary relationship respecting the same shares, unless the Secretary is given written notice to the contrary and is furnished with a copy of the instrument or order appointing them or creating the relationship wherein it is so provided, their acts with respect to voting shall have the following effect: (i) if only one votes, such act binds all; (ii) if more than one vote, the act of the majority so voting binds all; and (iii) if more than one vote, but the vote is evenly split on any particular matter each faction may vote such stock proportionally, or any person voting the shares, or a beneficiary, if any, may apply to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or such other court as may have jurisdiction to appoint an additional person to act with the persons so voting the stock, which shall then be voted as determined by a majority of such persons and the person appointed by the Court. If the instrument so filed shows that any such tenancy is held in unequal interests, a majority or even split for the purpose of this subsection shall be a majority or even split in interest.
(g) Stock of the Corporation belonging to the Corporation, or to another corporation a majority of the shares entitled to vote in the election of directors of which are held by the Corporation, shall not be voted at any meeting of stockholders and shall not be counted in the total number of outstanding shares for the purpose of determining whether a quorum is present. Nothing in this Section 1.7 shall limit the right of the Corporation to vote shares of stock of the Corporation held by it in a fiduciary capacity.
Section 1.8. Proxies. (a) Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy filed with the Secretary before or at the time of the meeting. No such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A duly executed proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power. A stockholder may revoke any proxy which is not irrevocable by attending the meeting and voting in person or by filing with the Secretary an instrument in writing revoking the proxy or another duly executed proxy bearing a later date.
(b) A stockholder may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy: (i) by executing a writing authorizing such person or persons to act as such, which execution may be accomplished by such stockholder or such stockholders authorized officer, director, partner, employee or agent (or, if the stock is held in a trust or estate, by a trustee, executor or administrator thereof) signing such writing or causing his or her signature to be affixed to such writing by any reasonable means, including, but not limited to, facsimile signature; or (ii) by transmitting or authorizing the transmission of a telegram, cablegram or other means of electronic transmission (a Transmission) to the person who will be the holder of the proxy or to a proxy solicitation firm, proxy support service organization or like agent duly authorized by the person who will be the holder of the proxy to receive such Transmission; provided that any such Transmission must either set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that such Transmission was authorized by such stockholder.
(c) The Secretary or such other person or persons as shall be appointed from time to time by the Board of Directors shall examine Transmissions to determine if they are valid. If it is determined a Transmission is valid, the person or persons making that determination shall specify the information upon which such person or persons relied. Any copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reliable reproduction of such a writing or Transmission may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing or Transmission for any and all purposes for which the original writing or Transmission could be used; provided that such copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reproduction is a complete reproduction of the entire original writing or Transmission.
Section 1.9. Fixing Date of Determination of Stockholders of Record. (a) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled: (i) to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof; (ii) to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting; (iii) to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights; (iv) to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock; or (v) to take, receive or participate in any other action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which shall not be earlier than the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors and which: (1) in the case of a determination of stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or adjournment thereof, shall, unless otherwise required by law, be not more than 60 nor less than ten days before the date of such meeting; (2) in the case of a determination of stockholders entitled to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, shall be not more than ten days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors; and (3) in the case of any other action, shall be not more than 60 days before such action.
(b) If no record date is fixed: (i) the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held; (ii) the record date for determining stockholders entitled to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting when no prior action of the Board of Directors is required by law, shall be the first date on which a signed written consent setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is delivered to the Corporation in accordance with applicable law, or, if prior action by the Board of Directors is required by law, shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action; and (iii) the record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.
(c) A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting, but the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.
Section 1.10. List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote. Unless all of the outstanding shares of stock of the corporation are held by a single holder, the Secretary shall prepare, at least ten days before every meeting of
stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten days prior to the meeting, either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be held, which place shall be specified in the notice of meeting, or, if not so specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held. The list shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present. The stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the stock ledger, the list of stockholders or the books of the Corporation, or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.
Section 1.11. Action By Consent of Stockholders. (a) Unless the power of stockholders to act by consent without a meeting is restricted or eliminated by the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent in writing (which may be in counterparts), setting forth the action so taken, is signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote on such action were present and voted.
(b) Every written consent shall bear the date of signature of each stockholder (or his, her or its proxy) signing such consent. Prompt notice of the taking of corporate action without a meeting of stockholders by less than unanimous written consent shall be given to those stockholders who have not consented in writing. All such written consents shall be delivered to the Corporation at its registered office in the State of Delaware, at its principal place of business or to the Secretary. Delivery made to the Corporations registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. No written consent shall be effective to authorize or take the corporate action referred to therein unless, within 60 days after the earliest dated written consent delivered to the Corporation in the manner required by this Section 1.11, written consents signed by a sufficient number of persons to authorize or take such action are delivered to the Corporation at its registered office in the State of Delaware, at its principal place of business or to the Secretary. All such written consents shall be filed with the minutes of proceedings of the stockholders, and actions authorized or taken under such written consents shall have the same force and effect as those authorized or taken pursuant to a vote of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting.
Board of Directors
Section 2.1. Number. The Board of Directors shall consist of one or more directors, the number thereof to be determined from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors.
Section 2.2. Election; Resignation; Vacancies. (a) Unless the Certificate of Incorporation or an amendment to these Bylaws adopted by the stockholders provides for a Board of Directors divided into two or three classes, at each annual meeting of stockholders the stockholders shall elect directors each of whom shall hold office until the next annual meeting of stockholders and the election and qualification of his or her successor, or until his or her earlier death, resignation or removal. If the Board of Directors is divided into classes, at each annual meeting at which the term of office of a class of directors expires, the stockholders shall elect directors of such class each to hold office until the annual meeting at which the terms of office of such class of directors expire and the election and qualification of his or her successor, or until his or her earlier death, resignation or removal.
(b) Any director may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Chairman of the Board, if any, the President or the Secretary. Unless otherwise stated in a notice of resignation, it shall take effect when received by the officer to whom it is directed, without any need for its acceptance.
(c) Any newly created directorship or any vacancy occurring in the Board of Directors for any reason may be filled by a majority of the remaining directors, although less than a quorum, or by a plurality of the
votes cast in the election of directors at a meeting of stockholders. Each director elected to replace a former director shall hold office until the expiration of the term of office of the director whom he or she has replaced and the election and qualification of his or her successor, or until his or her earlier death, resignation or removal. A director elected to fill a newly created directorship shall serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders (or, if the Board of Directors is divided into classes, the annual meeting at which the terms of office of the class of directors to which he or she is assigned expire) and the election and qualification of his or her successor, or until his or her earlier death, resignation or removal.
Section 2.3. Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at such places within or without the State of Delaware and at such times as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine, and if so determined notices thereof need not be given.
Section 2.4. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board, if any, the President, the Secretary, or by any member of the Board of Directors. Notice of a special meeting of the Board of Directors shall be given by the person or persons calling the meeting at least twenty-four hours before the special meeting. The purpose or purposes of a special meeting need not be stated in the call or notice.
Section 2.5. Organization. Meetings of the Board of Directors shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board, if any, or if there is none or in his or her absence, by the President, or in his or her absence by a chairman chosen at the meeting. The Secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in his or her absence the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting. A majority of the directors present at a meeting, whether or not they constitute a quorum, may adjourn such meeting to any other date, time or place without notice other than announcement at the meeting.
Section 2.6. Quorum; Vote Required for Action. At all meetings of the Board of Directors a majority of the whole Board of Directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. Unless the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws otherwise provide, the vote of a majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors.
Section 2.7. Committees. The Board of Directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the whole Board of Directors, designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more directors of the Corporation. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of the committee, the member or members present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent permitted by law and provided in these Bylaws or in the resolution of the Board of Directors designating such committee, or an amendment to such resolution, shall have and may exercise all powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it.
Section 2.8. Telephonic Meetings. Directors, or any committee of directors designated by the Board of Directors, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or such committee by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to this Section 2.8 shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.
Section 2.9. Informal Action by Directors. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board of Directors or such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing (which may be in counterparts), and the written consent or consents are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or such committee.
Section 2.10. Committee Rules. Unless the Board of Directors otherwise provides, each committee designated by the Board of Directors may make, alter and repeal rules for the conduct of its business. In the absence of such rules each committee shall conduct its business in the same manner as the Board of Directors conducts its business pursuant to this Article II of these Bylaws.
Section 2.11. Reliance upon Records. Each director, and every member of any committee of the Board of Directors, shall, in the performance of his or her duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the records of the Corporation and upon such information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the Corporation by any of its officers or employees, or committees of the Board of Directors, or by any other person as to matters the director or member reasonably believes are within such other persons professional or expert competence and who has been selected with reasonable care by or on behalf of the Corporation, including, but not limited to, such records, information, opinions, reports or statements as to the value and amount of the assets, liabilities and/or net profits of the Corporation, or any other facts pertinent to the existence and amount of surplus or other funds from which dividends might properly be declared and paid, or with which the Corporations capital stock might properly be purchased or redeemed.
Section 2.12. Interested Directors. A director who is directly or indirectly a party to a contract or transaction with the Corporation, or is a director or officer of or has a financial interest in any other corporation, partnership, association or other organization which is a party to a contract or transaction with the Corporation, may be counted in determining whether a quorum is present at any meeting of the Board of Directors or a committee thereof at which such contract or transaction is considered or authorized, and such director may participate in such meeting and vote on such authorization to the extent permitted by applicable law, including Section 144 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.
Section 2.13. Compensation. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, the Board of Directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors. The directors shall be paid their reasonable expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a committee thereof and may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each such meeting and an annual retainer or salary for services as a director or committee member. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor.
Section 2.14. Presumption of Assent. Unless otherwise provided by the laws of the State of Delaware, a director who is present at a meeting of the Board of Directors or a committee thereof at which action is taken on any matter shall be presumed to have assented to the action taken unless his or her dissent shall be entered in the minutes of such meeting or unless he or she shall file his or her written dissent to such action with the person acting as secretary of such meeting before the adjournment thereof or shall forward such dissent by registered mail to the Secretary immediately after the adjournment of such meeting. Such right to dissent shall not apply to a director who voted in favor of such action.
Section 3.1. Executive Officers; Election; Qualification; Term of Office. The Board of Directors shall elect a President and may, if it so determines, elect a Chairman of the Board from among its members. The Board of Directors shall also elect a Secretary and may elect one or more Vice Presidents, one or more Assistant Secretaries, a Treasurer and one or more Assistant Treasurers and such other officers as the Board of Directors may determine. Any number of offices may be held by the same person. Each officer shall hold office until the first meeting of the Board of Directors after the annual meeting of stockholders next succeeding his or her election, and until his or her successor is elected and qualified or until his or her earlier death, resignation or removal.
Section 3.2. Resignation; Removal; Vacancies. Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Chairman of the Board, if any, the President or the Secretary. Unless otherwise stated in a notice of resignation, such resignation shall take effect when received by the officer to whom it is directed, without any need for its acceptance. The Board of Directors may remove any officer with or without cause at any time, but such removal shall be without prejudice to the contractual rights of such officer, if any, with the Corporation. A vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation may be filled for the unexpired portion of the term thereof by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting.
Section 3.3. Powers and Duties of Executive Officers. The officers of the Corporation shall have such powers and duties in the management of the Corporation as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors and, to the extent not so provided, as generally pertain to their respective offices, subject to the control of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may require any officer, agent or employee to give security for the faithful performance of his or her duties.
Stock Certificates and Transfers
Section 4.1. Certificate. Every holder of stock shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by or in the name of the Corporation by the President or a Vice President and by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, or any two other officers as permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, certifying the number of shares owned by such stockholder in the Corporation. Any of or all the signatures on the certificate may be facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent, or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such officer, transfer agent, or registrar continued to be such at the date of issue.
Section 4.2. Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Certificates; Issuance of New Certificates. The Corporation may issue a new certificate for stock in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such stockholders legal representative, to give the Corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate.
Section 4.3. Transfers of Stock. Upon surrender to the Corporation or the transfer agent of the Corporation of a certificate for stock of the Corporation duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignment or authority to transfer or, if the relevant stock certificate is claimed to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon compliance with the provisions of Section 4.2 of these Bylaws, and upon payment of applicable taxes with respect to such transfer, and in compliance with any restrictions on transfer applicable to such stock certificate or the shares represented thereby of which the Corporation shall have notice and subject to such rules and regulations as the Board of Directors may from time to time deem advisable concerning the transfer and registration of stock certificates, the Corporation shall issue a new certificate or certificates for such stock to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate and record the transaction upon its books. Transfers of stock shall be made only on the books of the Corporation by the registered holder thereof or by such holders attorney or successor duly authorized as evidenced by documents filed with the Secretary or transfer agent of the Corporation. Whenever any transfer of stock shall be made for collateral security, and not absolutely, it shall be so expressed in the entry of transfer if, when the certificate or certificates representing such stock are presented to the Corporation for transfer, both the transferor and transferee request the Corporation to do so.
Section 4.4. Stockholders of Record. The Corporation shall be entitled to treat the holder of record of any stock of the Corporation as the holder thereof and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such stock on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise required by the laws of the State of Delaware.
Section 5.1. Manner of Notice. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, whenever notice is required to be given to any stockholder, director or member of any committee of the Board of Directors, such notice may be given by personal delivery or by depositing it, in a sealed envelope, in the United States mails, first class, postage prepaid, addressed, or by delivering it to a telegraph company, charges prepaid, for transmission, or by transmitting it via telecopier, to such stockholder, director or member, either at the address of such stockholder, director or member as it appears on the records of the Corporation or, in the case of such a director or member, at his or her business address; and such notice shall be deemed to be given at the time when it is thus personally delivered, deposited, delivered or transmitted, as the case may be. Such requirement for notice shall also be deemed satisfied, except in the case of stockholder meetings, if actual notice is received orally or by other writing by the person entitled thereto as far in advance of the event with respect to which notice is being given as the minimum notice period required by law or these Bylaws.
Section 5.2. Dispensation with Notice. (a) Whenever notice is required to be given by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws to any stockholder to whom: (i) notice of two consecutive annual meetings of stockholders, and all notices of meetings of stockholders or of the taking of action by stockholders by written consent without a meeting to such stockholder during the period between such two consecutive annual meetings; or (ii) all, and at least two, payments (if sent by first class mail) of dividends or interest on securities of the Corporation during a 12-month period, have been mailed addressed to such stockholder at the address of such stockholder as shown on the records of the Corporation and have been returned undeliverable, the giving of such notice to such stockholder shall not be required. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice to such stockholder shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given. If any such stockholder shall deliver to the Corporation a written notice setting forth the then-current address of such stockholder, the requirement that notice be given to such stockholder shall be reinstated.
(b) Whenever notice is required to be given by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws to any person with whom communication is unlawful, the giving of such notice to such person shall not be required, and there shall be no duty to apply to any governmental authority or agency for a license or permit to give such notice to such person. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice to any such person with whom communication is unlawful shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given.
Section 5.3. Waiver of Notice. Any written waiver of notice, signed by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders, directors, or members of a committee or directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice.
Section 6.1. Right to Indemnification.
(a) The Corporation shall indemnify and hold harmless, to the fullest extent permitted by law as in effect on the date of adoption of these Bylaws or as it may thereafter be amended, any person who was or is made or is threatened to be made a party or is otherwise involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (a proceeding) by reason of the fact that he or she, or a person for whom he or she is the legal representative, is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture or other enterprise, against any and all liability and loss (including judgments, fines, penalties and amounts paid in settlement) suffered or incurred and expenses reasonably incurred by such person; provided that any standard of conduct applicable to whether a director or officer may be indemnified shall be equally applicable to an employee or agent under this Article VI. The Corporation shall not be required to indemnify a person in connection with a proceeding initiated by such person, including a counterclaim or crossclaim, unless the proceeding was authorized by the Board of Directors.
(b) For purposes of this Article VI: (i) any reference to other enterprise shall include all plans, programs, policies, agreements, contracts and payroll practices and related trusts for the benefit of or relating to employees of the Corporation and its related entities (employee benefit plans); (ii) any reference to fines, penalties, liability and expenses shall include any excise taxes, penalties, claims, liabilities and reasonable expenses (including reasonable legal fees and related expenses) assessed against or incurred by a person with respect to any employee benefit plan; (iii) any reference to serving at the request of the Corporation shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or trustee or administrator of any employee benefit plan which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director, officer, employee or agent with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants, beneficiaries, fiduciaries, administrators and service providers; (iv) any reference to serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of a partnership or trust shall include service as a partner or trustee; and (v) a person who acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation for purposes of this Article VI.
Section 6.2. Prepayment of Expenses. The Corporation may pay or reimburse the reasonable expenses incurred in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition if the Corporation has received in advance an undertaking by the person receiving such payment or reimbursement to repay all amounts advanced if it should be ultimately determined that he or she is not entitled to be indemnified under this Article VI or otherwise. The Corporation may require security for any such undertaking.
Section 6.3. Claims. If a claim for indemnification or payment of expenses under this Article VI is not paid in full within 60 days after a written claim therefor has been received by the Corporation, the claimant may file suit to recover the unpaid amount of such claim and, if successful in whole or in part, shall be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such claim. In any such action the Corporation shall have the burden of proving that the claimant was not entitled to the requested indemnification or payment of expenses under applicable law.
Section 6.4. Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The rights conferred on any person by this Article VI shall not be exclusive of any other rights which such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.
Section 6.5. Other Indemnification. The Corporations obligation, if any, to indemnify any person who was or is serving at its request as a director, officer, employee, partner or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture or other enterprise shall be reduced by any amount such person may collect as indemnification from such other corporation, partnership, joint venture or other enterprise.
Section 6.6. Insurance. The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any director, officer or employee of the Corporation against liability asserted against or incurred by him or her in that capacity whether or not the Corporation would have power to indemnify or advance expenses to him or her against the same liability under this Article VI or the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.
Section 6.7. Amendment or Repeal. Any repeal or modification of the foregoing provisions of this Article VI shall not adversely affect any right or protection hereunder of any person in respect of any act or omission occurring prior to the time of such repeal or modification.
Section 7.1. Fiscal year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be determined by resolution of the Board of Directors.
Section 7.2. Seal. The Corporation may have a corporate seal. If the Corporation so chooses to have a seal, the corporate seal shall have the name of the Corporation inscribed thereon and shall be in such form as may be approved from time to time by the Board of Directors.
Section 7.3. Form of Records. Any records maintained by the Corporation in the regular course of its business, including its stock ledger, books of account, and minute books, may be kept on, or be in the form of, magnetic tape, photographs, microphotographs, or any other information storage device, provided that the records so kept can be converted into clearly legible form within a reasonable time. The Corporation shall so convert any records so kept upon the request of any person entitled to inspect the same.
Section 7.4. Amendment of Bylaws. These Bylaws may be altered or repealed, and new Bylaws made, by the Board of Directors, but the stockholders may make additional Bylaws and may alter and repeal any Bylaws whether adopted by them or otherwise.